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Parlors; Dining and Sleeping Rooms; Kitchens and Basements; Cellars, 
Vaults and Water Closets; Tenement Houses; School, Lecture and 
Court Rooms; Churches; Legislative Halls; Poor Houses, Pri¬ 
sons and Hospitals; Factories and Dye Houses; Breweries 
and Distilleries ; Powder Magazines ; Stores and Show 
Windows; Banking Houses; Hotels and Restaurants; 

Fruit and Provision Closets; Pork Packing 
Houses; Stables; Ships and Steamboats; 

&c, &c. &c. 


“ If we breathe a gas that is noxious, or air that contains but a very small proportion of carbonic 
acid, we die.”— Anatomy , Physiology and Hygiene. By Prof. John C. Draper. 

Pamphlet Edition. 


1866 . 










Patented May 26, 1863, April 25, 1865, and May 9, 1865. 

fgp For Description of Cut, see note, page 86. 

H3F” The arrows indicate the up-moving currents of air. 

§ijp The combustion of the gas jet at E is supported by the air which enters 
at C ; and along with this air, which acquires a powerful ascensional force 
through the heat of the lantern, the heavy carbonic acid gas also ascends and 
mingles with the heated air and lighter noxious gases which enter the ven¬ 
tilator at I, all passing upward and oirward, by virtue of an irresistible motive 
power, until they are finally discharged into the atmosphere. 


- X 
\ * 







Parlors; Dining and Sleeping Rooms ; Kitchens and Basements; Cellars, 
Vaults and Water Closets; Tenement Houses; ScnooL, Lecture and 
Court Rooms; Churches; Legislative Halls; Poor Houses, Pri¬ 
sons and Hospitals; Factories and Dye Houses; Breweries 
and Distilleries; Powder Magazines; Stores and Show 
Windows ; Banking Houses; Hotels and Restaurants; 

Fruit and Provision Closets ; Pork Packing 
Houses; Stables; Ships and Steamboats; 

&c, &c. &c. 




“ If we breathe a gas that is noxious, or air that contains but a very small proportion of carbonic 
acid, we die.”— Anatomy , Physiology and Hygiene. By Prof. John C. Draper. 

/ Y 

Pamphlet Edition. 


1866 . 



The Patentee respectfully refers to the following gentlemen and 
business firms, who have used his apparatus, or given orders for the 
erection of it on their premises. See also Certificates at the end of 
this pamphlet. 

Messrs. Hitchcock, Darling & Co., 5th Avenue Hotel, N. Y. 

Albert Clark, Esq., Proprietor, Brevoort House, N. Y. 

Paran Stevens, Esq., 244 Fifth Avenue, N. Y. 

S. H. Gay, Esq., Editor of New York Tribune. 

J. A. Hamilton, Esq., 46 Exchange Place, N. Y. 

A. B. Darling, Esq., 40 West 23d Street, N. Y. 

Samuel Sinclair, Esq., Publisher of New York Tribune. 

Mrs. G. S. Robbins, No. 15 West Seventeenth Street, N. Y. 

Jas. H. Banker, Esq., 98 5tlr Avenne, N. Y. 

Hon. Judge Henry Hilton, 222 Madison Avenue, N. Y. 

Daniel Devlin, City Chamberlain, N. Y. 

Hon. Wm. Dennison, Postmaster-General, Washington City. 

George Riggs, Esq., Banker, Washington City. 

Messrs. Jay Cooke & Co., Bankers. 

Hon. S. J. Bowen, Postmaster, Washington City. 

Thos. McElrath, Esq., 8 Washington Place, N. Y. 

Messrs. Breeden & Southwick, 109 Liberty street, N. Y. 

John Taylor, Esq., International Hotel, N. Y. 

S. D. Babcock, Esq., firm of Babcock Brothers, Bankers, N. Y. 

Martin Bates, Esq., 51 Broadway, N. Y. 

Charles A. Meigs, Esq., Banker, Exchange Place, N. Y. 

Messrs. Middleton & Co., Shippers, N. Y. 

R. W. Milbank, Esq., 82 Front Street, N. Y. 

Lyman Fisk, Esq., Stevens’ House, N. Y. 

A. McKinney, Esq., 121 Beacon Street, Boston. 

J. P. Richards, Esq., Belmont Hotel, N. Y. 

Messrs. Symons & Havens, Market, Fulton Street, Brooklyn 


D. D. Winchester, Esq., Western Hotel, N. Y. 

Messrs. Clark & Schenck, Merchant’s Hotel, N. Y. 

John W. Ritch, Esq., Architect, 153 Broadway, N. Y. 

Messrs. William Field & Son, Architects, 54 Wall Street, N. Y. 

Wm. B. Ditmars, Esq., Architect, 18 South 7th Street, Brooklyn. 

Charles Cooper, Esq., Fulton Market, N. Y. 

Messrs. Finck & Hencken, 191 Duane Street, N. Y. 

Messrs. White & Ganes, 7 Worth Street, N. Y. 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by 

In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of N. Y. 



References. 2 

New System of Ventilation.. .. 5 

Foul Air and Disease Synonymous—The New York Tribune.. .. 6 

The Food we eat—Ventilated Provision Closets. 8 

Noxious Gases—How they act upon and destroy the Blood—Dr. Mattson’s 

Testimony. 9 

To Architects and Builders.’. 11 

Paran Stevens, Esq.—Ventilation of his Stable, Kitchen, and Refrigerator— 

Meat House in the Fifth Avenue Hotel. 11 

Ventilation in New York Hotels—Albemarle—Brevoort House—St. James’— 

St. Nicholas—Brandreth House—Merchants’ Hotel—Western Hotel— 

International Hotel... 15 

Pork House Ventilation—Messrs. Silverhorn, Millemann and Lockett—Pork 

cured at Fifty Degrees of Temperature. 16 

Ventilation of Stables—Horses sicken and die from bad air—Zoological Gar¬ 
dens—Varnish of Carriages Destroyed—Cow Stables—Poisonous Milk 

—Statement by Professor Doremus. 17 

Palaces and Stables in New York city—A Word about “ Fresh Milk”—Peev¬ 
ish Mothers. 20 

Water Closet Ventilation. 23 

Sub-Cellars, Basements, etc.—Goods Saved from Rusting. 24 

Fruit Rooms—Preservation of Fruit in its Natural State—Strawberries kept 

ten days, and Ripe Peaches three weeks. 24 

Show Window Ventilation. 25 

Refrigerators. 26 

Facts Concerning the Preservation of Meat, Butter, and Milk—Ventilated 

Milk and Butter Houses—Testimony of Mrs. G. S. Robbins. 27 

Banking Houses—Judge Hilton and his Stable—Ventilation of the New York 

Bank—Pure Air a Valuable Panacea. 23 

Washington City Post Office—A Fact for the Skeptical—Orders from Jay 

Cooke and Geo. W. Riggs, the noted Bankers_. 29 

Sailing Vessels, etc.—Commodore Foote. 31 

Insufficiency of Flues or Chimneys as a means of Ventilation—Origin of Chim¬ 
neys—Divided Flues. 33 

Our New Method of Ventilation explained—Description of Cut, (vid. opposite 
Title Page, and note, page 36)—Theories Considered—Adaptation of 
the Ventilator—Professor Diaper’s Mode of Ventilation—Advantages 

of the Ventilator—Question for Physicians—Our Patents. 36 

Certificates. 43 





Holds himself in readiness to make applications of the same for any of the pur¬ 
poses of Ventilation, whenever called upon by his patrons. His Apparatus is 

adapted to 

Parlors; Dining and Sleeping Rooms; Kitchens and Basements ; Cel¬ 
lars, Vaults and Water Closets; Tenement Houses; School, Lecture 
and Court Rooms ; Churches; Legislative Halls; Poor Houses, Pris¬ 
ons and Hospitals; Factories and Dye Houses; Breweries and Distil¬ 
leries; Powder Magazines; Stores and Show Windows; Banking 
Houses ; Hotels and Restaurants; Fruit and Provision Closets ; Pork 
Packing Houses; Meat Houses for Hotels, Butchers, &c. ; Stables; 
Ships and Steamboats ; &c., &c. 

23P 30 Descriptive Octavo Pamphlets , of 48 pages, with a Wood Cut Illus¬ 
tration, may he obtained free at the Office , or ivill he sent free by mail , on 





This pamphlet is written for the purpose of giving a brief explana¬ 
tion of what is termed “ Gouge's Atmospheric Ventilator which we in¬ 
vented and patented some years ago. It has been extensively used 
since that time, having been put into practical operation in more than 
three hundred instances, and in every instance with complete and en¬ 
tire success. In view of this positive assertion, which, it is believed, 
will be sustained by the gentlemen who have honored the writer with 
their names as references, it may as well be stated that the patentee 
never asks to be paid for his services until he has fully accomplished 
the object for which he has been employed. In this way he hopes to 
win the confidence of those who apply to him for his professional ser¬ 
vices. Although the principle involved in the new system of ventila¬ 
tion, which will be hereafter explained, is simple and obvious, yet the 
successful application of it is sometimes very difficult, owing to condi¬ 
tions and circumstances which he will not attempt in this place to de¬ 
scribe ; but with the varied experience which he has had for nearly four 
years, ventilating, as he has done, some of the most difficult places that 
can be imagined, he believes that no one applying to him for his ser¬ 
vices will ever be disappointed in his expectations. 


Foul or noxious air, in any of its forms, is eminently dangerous to 
health and life, as every physician who has thoroughly studied the sub¬ 
ject will admit; but if we have the bane , we also have the antidote. 
The Atmospheric Ventilator, when property adapted to the purposes 
required^ will banish foul air and unwholesome odors and gases from 
every part of your domicil, workshop, store, office, building, or other 
unsavory or infected place, and furnish in their stead a full supply of 
fresh, pure, dry air, which will keep the blood in healthful circulation, 


and aid in counteracting the many tendencies to disease. The air of 
your kitchen may be rendered as sweet as that upon the mountain top, 
instead of being permitted to permeate and contaminate the whole 
house, imparting a kitchen odor to your parlors, bedrooms, and even 
the dresses in your wardrobes. 

Water closets may be deprived of their effluvia, and thereby truly 
rendered what is termed a u modern improvement cellars and basements 
may be rendered dry and sweet, so that you may go into them without 
the risk of contracting an asthma or a rheumatism; and your sleeping 
rooms may have the carbonic acid gas which is discharged from the 
lungs in breathing, with other poisons exhaled from the surface of the 
body, carried off as rapidly as they are formed, instead of being taken * 
back again into the lungs; and in the place of these noxious agents, 
you will have pure air, in a steady, gentle, continuous volume, intro¬ 
duced into your rooms without exposing the occupants to draughts, as 
is the case when the windows are opened ; and thus, upon rising in 
the morning, you will feel refreshed and invigorated, fully prepared for 
the duties or toils of the day, instead of suffering with that languor and 
debility which are so frequently experienced after sleeping all night in 
a close and poorly ventilated room. Ladies will have a finer rouge up¬ 
on their cheeks than they can get from pink saucers, if they will only 
accustom themselves to sleep all night in a fresh and pure atmosphere. 


The writer of this is not a physician, but in the course of his pro¬ 
fessional duties, ventilating kitchens, basements, water closets, offices, 
stables, and all sorts of places, he has seen enough to satisfy him that 
a great deal of disease results from bad air, without the cause oftentimes 
being even suspected. The people have yet to learn that pure air is 
one of the most essential requisites of a healthy existence. The influ¬ 
ence of bad air has been constantly apparent to the writer. He re¬ 
cently visited a poor-house, in which there was no adequate ventilation, 
and the children were nearly all suffering with sore eyes, and other 
marks of disease. They were wretched looking objects. The direct¬ 
ors feared the approach of cholera, and wished to have the place venti¬ 
lated. When this is done, it will be found that much of the prevailing 
disease will disappear. 


We ventilated a large banking-house in New York city, in which 
the air was extremely foul, and when the work was done, the clerks 
experienced an immediate change in the atmosphere ; they felt re¬ 
freshed and invigorated, instead of experiencing that sense of weari¬ 
ness and lassitude which accompanies a noxious air. One of the clerks, 
who had been for a long time asthmatic, immediately recovered his 

A gentleman occupying a very handsome residence, had what be 
considered a damp and unwholesome parlor, for he scarcely ever came 
home from his counting-room and threw himself upon the sofa, without 
feeling as though he had taken a severe cold. Underneath the parlor 
was a damp sub-cellar, to which I attributed the difficulty, and upon 
establishing a proper ventilation, he ceased to take cold, and ceased 
also to be troubled with frequent attacks of rheumatic pains. 

Let me add the authority of the Tribune in relation to the perni¬ 
cious influence of bad air. My first introduction into the Tribune of¬ 
fice was in consequence of a water closet which had given them a great 
deal of trouble, imparting a disgusting odor to the editorial rooms. It 
had been pulled down and newly erected three times, but still the nui¬ 
sance was not abated. The proprietors of the establishment wished to 
avail themselves of my mode of ventilation, which was duly established, 
and which gave so much satisfaction that I was complimented with an 
editorial notice in the Tribune, from which I make the subjoined ex¬ 
tract : “ More deaths occur annually in New York which may be di¬ 

rectly traced to bad ventilation, than are produced by all epidemical 
diseases combined. The atmosphere of many of the offices and count¬ 
ing-rooms is so poisonous that any one entering them from the fresh 
air is actually stifled, though unnoticed by the inmates, except by gen¬ 
eral lassitude, headaches, and incapacity for work. In our office we 
have introduced Mr. Gouge’s system of ventilation with marked suc¬ 
cess. There may be as good, or even a better plan, but we have found 
this as effectual as anything can be in ill-contrived rooms. But what 
we desire to see is some plan adopted whereby the exhausted and im¬ 
pure air which is generated in the crowded shops, offices, schools, and 
factories of our city may be constantly displaced by the introduction of 
fresh and vital air.” 

Not only man but the domestic animals suffer from impure air. 
We have frequently noticed this in ventilating horse stables. The poor 


animals, not having a full supply of pure air, gradually sicken, and 
^ begin to lose their sight. There is an immense amount of blindness 
among horses on this account. It does not seem to be understood that 
a horse needs fresh air quite as much as he needs hay or oats. We 
have seen splendid horses, which had cost the owners several thousand 
dollars apiece, sold at auction for a mere song, on account of blindness, 
induced by being shut up in close stables. This subject will be refer¬ 
red to again, under the head of “ Stables ” 


This is a subject deserving more care and attention than it usually 
receives. We not only poison our blood with foul air, but frequently 
also by the use of improper food. The noxious gases which are so detri¬ 
mental to the life forces, when taken into the lungs, will also, retained 
in refrigerators and provision closets, produce rapid putrefactive 
changes in the meat, fruits and other articles of food, which may be 
present. Tood may be rendered unwholesome independently of a 
change which would be perceptible to the sense of smell. Carry off 
the noxious gases in question, however, as rapidly as they are formed, 
which is done in my ventilated 'provision closets , and it will be found that 
our most perishable fruits, of which strawberries are a very good type, 
will be preserved in a good condition for ten days, or longer, and fresh 
meat will keep sweet and good in the hot weather of summer for sev¬ 
eral weeks, retaining in the meantime its natural red color Nothing 
will explain better than this, to the popular mind, the baneful effects 
of noxious airs and gases, not only in hastening destructive changes in 
our food, but in deteriorating or destroying our health. Hence it is 
that a cheap and efficient system of ventilation is one of the great needs 
of the age—one of the most urgent wants of our social system. 


We have been employing our leisure time for a month or so in pre¬ 
paring a condensed book upon ventilation, deriving the subject matter 
from the highest and best authorities, and writing it in reference to our 
new process of ventilation, but being unable to finish it speedily, we 
have been obliged to prepare this little treatise for temporary use, as 
frequent applications have been made to us recently for such a publi¬ 



dr. iiattson’s testimony. 

In the new book, above referred to, we shall enumerate and describe 
the noxious gases which are introduced much too frequently into our 
breathing atmosphere, as carbonic acid gas from the lungs ; carbonic ox¬ 
ide from imperfect combustion ; and carburetted and sulphuretted hydrogen 
from the decomposition of animal and vegetable matter. The latter 
gas, so offensive to the smell, is an emanation also from water closets 
and drains. We quote from lectures entitled “ Facts for the People 
Concerning Health,” &c., by Dr. Morris Mattson, formerly of Boston, 
but now of New York city, in which good authority is given for the 
statement, familiar, no doubt, to every well-read physician, that sul¬ 
phuretted hydrogen, and some other gases, will not only darken the 
blood, but actually decompose it, so that it cannot be restored by the , 
oxygen of the air. We cannot conceive of any more cogent argument 
than this in favor of properly ventilating our houses, offices, workshops, 
factories, and all buildings in which human beings are crowded to¬ 
gether. We cannot do better than to quote a few paragraphs from Dr. 
Mattson on this important subject. He says : 

u Carburetted and sulphuretted hydrogen , along with carbonic oxide , are 
much to be dreaded when we take into account their peculiar action 
upon the blood. They produce their effects slowly, but with unerring 
results, unless the cause be removed. They darken the blood, as does 
carbonic acid, but unlike carbonic acid, they so change its character 
that it cannot be restored to a healthful condition by oxygen. This is 
an important consideration. Liebig says sulphuretted hydrogen turns 
the globules of the blood blackish green, and finally black, and the 
original red color cannot be restored by contact with oxygen, because 
a decomposition of them has obviously taken place. The globules 
darkened by carbonic acid, he adds, become again florid in oxygen, and 
also in nitrous oxide, which shows that they have undergone no de¬ 
composition. Here then is a difference between the two gases worthy 
of notice. Lehmann, the great German physiologist, who has the sanc¬ 
tion of Professor Samuel Jackson, of the Pennsylvania University, 
(vid. Manual of Chemical Physiology,) tells us that ‘ carbonic oxide and 
several carbohydrogens’ color the blood almost black, and destroy the 
blood globules, or in other words, that they * combine so firmly with the 


components of the blood globules, that the previous nature of the blood 
can in no way be restored.’ ” 

“It will be seen, therefore, that the poisonous gases to which we are 
frequently exposed and obliged to inhale, excepting the carbonic acid, 
tend directly to decompose or destroy the blood, so that it can never be 
restored. This is a sufficient explanation of the virulent effects of the 
gases in question. ‘ In the blood is the life,’ says the inspired vol¬ 
ume, and whatever tends to disturb the healthful condition of that fluid 
must tend directly, and in an equal degree, to disturb the whole system. 
It need not seem extraordinary, then, that the gases aforesaid, acting 
suddenly and powerfully upon the system, should, as eminent medical 
authors allege, produce diarrhoea,.dysentery, cholera, typhus, ship and 
gaol fevers, and even the pestilence. But we have these gases fre¬ 
quently in a more diluted form, pervading our kitchens, our parlors, 
and our sleeping rooms, and yet, perhaps, not appreciable to the sense 
of smell. Here, indeed, we have a secret foe, equally unseen and 
unheeded, which may sap the very foundation of life without our even 
suspecting the cause. Being the victims of bad drainage, &c., we are 
constantly inhaling those gases while confined within our houses, and 
they are as constantly decomposing or destroying the blood. This is 
especially true at night, while asleep, with perhaps every window care¬ 
fully and tightly closed, so as to prevent the slightest possible access of 
pure, fresh air. We find ourselves a little pale at first upon rising in 
the morning, with an unpleasant lassitude, and perhaps some nausea 
or headache; but we go into the fresh air and these symptoms are dis¬ 
sipated. In truth, we do not regard them as very important. We 
renew the inhalations of the poisonous gases, day after day, and night 
after night, until the blood is essentially changed in its healthy compo¬ 
sition, and with it the whole system is beginning to suffer in a marked 
degree, taking the form of dyspepsia, neuralgia, rheumatism, bilious 
trouble, heart difficulty, or some other phase of chronic disease. The 
countenance being pale and haggard, the doctor prescribes some form 
of iron, with the hope of improving the blood, but for some reason or 
other he finds he cannot produce a favorable change in that fluid. It 
does not seem to be understood that the blood is partially decomposed, 
and that the globides, which have suffered this destruction, can never 
be restored by any human agency; nor is ventilation thought of as a 
remedy, which, if efficient, would speedily banish every vestige of the 


noxious gases which have caused all the difficulty, and which would 
prevent any further destruction of the blood globules—the first thing, 
indeed, to be thought of as a curative means. Thus, we are slowly 
and unconsciously poisoned—poisoned, perhaps, even unto death. We 
become the victims of a subtle agency of which our senses do not take 
cognizance; we yield to a cause of disease which is equally unseen and 
unheeded, but which is sure and terrible in its consequences.” 


We respectfully solicit the judgment of architects and builders in 
relation to our method of ventilation. They are already fully informed 
as to the importance of the subject. At this particular time the com¬ 
munity very naturally look to them for suggestions as to the best 
modes of guarding against disease, and especially the cholera, which 
may be slowly approaching our shores. No scientific architect need be 
told that to preserve health it is imperative to have perfect ventilation. But 
very few architects or builders have been able to devise any efficient 
plan for accomplishing this result. To effect the object, all impure or 
vitiated air must be quickly removed, and fresh air continuously intro¬ 
duced in its place. We claim, upon the score of an enlarged experi¬ 
ence, as well as upon the basis of scientific and philosophic truth, that 
our Atmospheric Ventilator will accomplish this in the most perfect man¬ 
ner, and as no other method of ventilation ever yet discovered is capable 
of doing. It is simple in its construction; it is extremely economical; 
it costs nothing to keep it in order; it requires no skill in its use, and 
no attendance except the lighting of the gas jet; and it can be readily 
introduced into any apartment or enclosure requiring the interchange 
of a pure, fresh air, for one that is impure and unwholesome. Let 
architects and builders therefore stand between ourself and the public, 
and decide, according to their best judgments, upon the merits of the 
invention in question. It should be borne in mind, also, that when 
buildings are in process of erection, the ventilating fixtures can be put 
in to better advantage and at much less expense than after the building 
has been completed. 


Mr. Stevens is a representative man, being the Napoleon of popular 
hotels in the United States. A. B. Darling, Esq., one of his partners 


in the Fifth Avenue Hotel , is also a representative man, though not so 
extensively known to the public as Mr. Stevens. He arranged the 
general plan and construction of the hotel, and is its chief manager, 
purchasing all of the provisions and stores used in the establishment; 
in that capacity he applied to me for my services in ventilating his 
meat house . When the hotel was first commenced, he used large pro¬ 
vision closets or refrigerators, without any opening or ventilation. 
These were soon abandoned because it was found that the meats 
speedily spoiled. He then packed his meats in large chests, alternating 
with layers of ice, which preserved the meats a longer time; but it was 
« found that the portions of the meat in contact with the ice would be 
bleached perfectly white, and had to be cut off and thrown away. This, 
of course, was a great loss. Nevertheless, this plan was continued for 
many years, until I constructed for him a large ventilated meat house, 
capable of holding one or two tons of meat, which he has used ever 
since. With a temperature not exceeding forty-five or fifty degrees,, 
he can keep meat in the hottest days of summer as long as he desires, 
which is usually a week or ten days; and during this time it retains its 
red color, which indicates that it is in the best and most wholesome 

\ f 

condition for food. I am assured that not a pound of meat has been 
lost since the meat house was put into operation. It is with some little 
professional pride and pleasure, therefore, that I would suggest to a 
generous public, not already familiar with the culinary and other 


attractions of the Fifth Avenue Hotel, that if they are desirous of 
regaling their palates with the best and choicest meats which the 
market affords, they need only record their names as guests at the 
above celebrated house. Indeed, it may be confidently stated that 
meats kept for a period of about ten days, (this is the theory of Mr. 
Darling,) in one of my ventilated meat houses or provision closets, 
whereby they have no opportunity of absorbing the injurious gases 
constantly present in close or imperfectly ventilated refrigerators, have 
a savory richness and delicacy, and withal a nutritive quality, not char¬ 
acteristic of meats kept in the ordinary way. 

Succeeding so well in the experiment with the meat house, Mr. 
Darling employed me to ventilate all of his provision rooms, and also 
the large water-closet of the hotel, which had caused a great deal of 
trouble, and was a source of discomfort to the guests. 

With this favorable introduction into the establishment, I was 


requested to call upon Mr. Stevens, whose name is at the head of this 
article, and who had been complaining for a considerable time of the 
inadequate ventilation of his horse stable, perceiving, when he entered 
it, a stifling atmosphere and an almost intolerable odor, which was 
perceptible in his horses even when they were brought into the open 
air; and wdthal, his horses appeared to be in an unhealthy condition, 
with cold ears, bloodshot eyes, and other signs of disease. It was 
under these circumstances that Mr. Stevens was desirous to avail 
himself of my new system of ventilation, for he had hitherto looked in 
vain for any relief from the troubles enumerated above. I found in 
his stable five very splendid horses, for one of which he had recently 
paid five thousand dollars. The stable I found to be almost destitute 
of ventilation, notwithstanding an ample flue put up at the head of 
each stall in the original construction of the building, and which the 
architect, without doubt, deemed all sufficient for the purposes of ven¬ 
tilation. There was also, in addition to the flues, a large trap or 
ventilator in the skylight; but with all of these contrivances, the 
atmosphere in the stable was of the most offensive character, and the 
poor horses, valued at a little fortune, were suffering for the want of a 
due supply of that indispensable element of life and health, pure, fresh 
air. I proceeded at once to ventilate the stable, and in a few weeks 
after the work was completed, I called upon Mr. Stevens to inquire 
what had been the result of the experiment. He assured me that it 
had worked splendidly, and that his stable now abounded with a pure, 
sweet and wholesome air. A great lover of that noble animal, the 
horse, as Mr. Stevens is known to be, I could not but observe the 
pleasure which he manifested in having been able to improve the 
sanitarv condition of his favorite animals. 

Deriving so much satisfaction from the introduction of a pure atmos¬ 
phere into his stable, Mr. Stevens now had his attention recalled very 
forcibly to the sad condition of his kitchen, which, he said, abounded 
in offensive and unwholesome odors, and which, as is common in all 
similar cases, were constantly pervading the rooms above, and rendering 
his parlors, his art gallery, and other apartments extremely disagree¬ 
able. A ventilator, so called, had been placed in the flue, extending 
up from the kitchen, but it proved to be of no avail; and he had almost 
decided to tear down this flue and erect another in its place, extending 
to the height of five stories, with the hope that the defects herein 



described might be obviated. He was gratified to find, however, that 
instead of an expenditure of five or six thousand dollars, which a new 
flue would cost, he could have his kitchen ventilated by my simple 
method at comparatively little expense. The work was commenced 
and speedily completed, and I had the assurance of my patron that the 
experiment was entirely successful, and that he was no longer troubled 
with an impure or disagreeable atmosphere in his private apartments. 

Mr. Stevens next desired me to ventilate a large refrigerator which 
he used for his private purposes, and into which choice meats, game, 
and other provisions were placed for preservation. As he had become 
somewhat accustomed to the pleasures of a sweet atmosphere in his 
stable, kitchen, and private parlors, he had no difficulty in detecting the 
very impure atmosphere which pervaded this refrigerator. Indeed, up¬ 
on opening the door, the air was almost sickening, and the idea of a 
dinner of sirloin or canvass-back was anything but agreeable. And 
here it ought to be borne in mind that no food is fit to be eaten which 
is confined a long time in such an atmosphere as here described. The 
provisions absorb the noxious gases which are present, and they are 
regarded by physicians as more or less poisonous to the blood and the 
whole system. Mr. Stevens was not to be censured for this sad condi¬ 
tion of his private larder, for he knew not how to remedy the evil, and 
a peep into the refrigerators of our fashionable hotels, boarding houses, 
and private dwellings will frequently disclose an oder not at all sug¬ 
gestive of “ Sweetbriar ” or “Verbena.” Some months after ven¬ 
tilation had been established in the above refrigerator, I was informed 
that not a poimd of meat, poultry or game, had been lost since the 
experiment was commenced, whereas previously to that time many of 
the articles put into it had been spoiled. 

In due time I called upon Mr. Stevens to ascertain whether my 
labors in his behalf had proved satisfactory, and if so, whether he 
would favor me with a letter setting forth this fact to the public. 
Without any reserve, he replied: “ Certainly, with great pleasure, 

because you are doing good to the public, and it is my duty to inform 
the public of the services which you are capable of rendering them. 
If I were not lame,” added Mr. Stevens, “I would go about and adver¬ 
tise you myself.” 



james’—st. Nicholas—brandreth house—merchants’ hotel— 


The New York hotels are probably unrivalled on the score of ex¬ 
cellence and popularity. This is because they are usually managed by 
wide awake men, who comprehend the public wants, and spare neither 
labor nor expense in adding to the attractions and substantial improve¬ 
ments of their establishments. Thus I am enabled to acknowledge, 
with, equal pride and pleasure, the liberal patronage which has been 
bestowed upon me by the hotels in question. I have established ven¬ 
tilation, of one kind or another, in each of the hotels enumerated above, 
and in the order in which they are named. 

The Albemarle was the first to show its appreciation of my new 
mode of ventilation, and there is now within the establishment one of 
my large refrigerators or provision houses , divided into apartments, each 
one of which is intended for the reception of some particular article of 
food, as fresh meat, cooked meats, fish, butter, pastry, &c. 

The Brevoort House has been liberal in its patronage, having within 
the establishment a large meat house, and a large refrigerator, divided 
into apartments, like the one mentioned above. One of these is used 
for the reception of cut meats, so that they may be ready at a moment’s 
notice, when ordered by a guest;.another for cold meats; a third for 
jellies , pastries , ice creams, &c.; and the others for fish, butter, &c., as al¬ 
ready named. 

The Fifth Avenue Hotel would be about third upon the list, but is 
not here included, because it has been specially mentioned in the last 
section, in connection with Mr. Stephens. 

In all of the other hotels there are large ventilated meat houses, so 
that the travelling public need not be in ignorance of the hotels at 
which they may obtain superior roast beef, or savory steaks and chops. 
For my own part, I would prefer a third rate hotel, -with one of my 
ventilated meat houses, to a first class establishment, if it may be so 
termed, without any such improvement. 

In the Belmont the dining room is ventilated; and this is the only 
public dining room which I have had the pleasure of ventilating. It 
was rendered extremely unpleasant by the smoke and misty vapors and 
odors from the kitchen, the atmosphere being so clouded at times that 



one could Scarcely discern the face of a friend a short distance off. To 
remedy this difficulty, ventilation was established, which proved, ac¬ 
cording to the Certificate of the proprietor, which may be found in an¬ 
other place, “ a complete success.” The atmosphere, at all events, is 
free from smoke and kitchen odors. 



A large proportion of the people of the United States, having no 
special regard for the old Mosaic law, are great lovers of pork, and 
consequently the pork business is a thriving and profitable branch of 
trade. This presupposes the necessity of pork houses for curing and 
preserving the meat, and as the dealers frequently have from twenty 
to one hundred thousand dollars of their stock on hand at a time, the 
question of perfect ventilation is an important one, especially as thou¬ 
sands of dollars worth of the meat is liable to spoil in a very short time. 

Among my earliest experiments in ventilation was one for Mr. 
Silverhorn, in New York city, in 1862, who conducted a large pork 
establishment. By reference to his card at the end of this pamphlet, 
it will be seen that the experiment was successful. The foul and damp 
atmosphere of his cooling rooms was replaced by one perfectly dry and 
pure; his men ceased to complain of sickness: and he found bis pork 
curing as well in summer, with the aid of my ventilating process, as it 
had done in winter at a temperature of thirty-eight or thirty-nine 
degrees. I may add that there has been no instance of pork going 
into one of my ventilated houses in a sound and sweet condition that 
was not found equally sound and sweet when taken out. 

In 1863 I ventilated the pork house of Mr. Millemann, who had 
been in the business forty years, and who had had ample experience 
with regard to the various methods of cooling and ventilating pork 
houses. Observing the thermometer as high as fifty degrees, under 
my direction, he became very much alarmed, as he had $40,000 worth 
of pork on hand, and he had been accustomed to as low a temperature 
as thirty-eight or forty degrees. He found, however, that his pork 
cured better at fifty degrees than it had ever done with lower tem¬ 
peratures by the old methods. [See his card in another place.] 

It may be inferred, therefore, that I use much less ice than is 
necessary in the old method. The most experienced dealers in pork 


'deemed it requisite to have a temperature iu their pork houses of about 
thirty-six or thirty-eight degrees, but certainly never exceeding forty 
degrees; and when I proposed to employ a temperature of only fifty 
degrees, every one of them seemed to regard it with extreme skepticism. 
Hence it will be seen that it is the lack of ventilation in the old method 
which hastens the destruction of the meat, and that by ventilating effi¬ 
ciently, so as to carry off the foul air rapidly, the pork may be cured 
and preserved at a much higher temperature. 

Joseph Lockett, one of the largest and most experienced English 
pork packers in the country, deserves to be mentioned in this connec¬ 
tion. He availed himself of my apparatus in one of his cooling rooms 
as an experiment, and finding that it afforded a perfect ventilation, as 
will be seen by reference to his card in another place, he had it applied 
consecutively to all of his rooms. There can be no better authority 
upon the subject of pork house ventilation, than that of Mr. Lockett 



The ventilation of stables intended for the accommodation of our 
domestic animals, and especially the horse, is a matter of very great 
importance. It is claimed by those who have had ample experience, 
that there are more horses dying annually from imperfect ventilation 
than all other causes combined. Bad air is known to produce blind¬ 
ness in horses, which is becoming very prevalent, especially in New 
York city, where horses are often crowded together in very small 
stables. A horse is frequently valued at five or ten thousand dollars, 
and sometimes more, and it is surprising that the owner of so valuable 
and noble an animal should ever endanger its health or life for the 
want of proper ventilation, which would cost but a trifling comparative 
sum. A horse, with its large, vigorous lungs, requires a large amount 
of fresh air, which it is impossible for it to obtain in a close or illy 
ventilated stable, especially when several animals are crowded together 
in a small space. The horse then begins to droop and show signs of 
disease ; his ears grow cold; his eyes lose their brilliancy, and finally 
hi s sight becomes impaired; his step becomes less firm and elastic; 
and when he is taken from the stable, it is not until he has had time 
to take in copious draughts of pure, fresh air, that he begins to brighten 


up or manifest bis usual vigor and animation. A horse is almost as 
susceptible to the influence of fresh air as a human being is to that of 
laughing gas, and in proportion as he is deprived of it, in that propor¬ 
tion will his health and usefulness be impaired, even though his life' 
may not be destroyed. 

A brother of mine in Boston, some years ago, had a valuable horse 
which became sick in consequence, as it was believed, of a poorly ven¬ 
tilated stable. Its life being dispaired of, it was arranged to send him 
to a veterinary surgeon in Cambridge, just across the river from Boston., 
for treatment. Three men were employed to conduct the animal to 
his new quarters, one to lead him, and the other two to support him on 
either side, as he was liable, from his great exhaustion, to stagger and 
fall to the ground. The bridge by which the river is crossed was finally 
gained, and here the horse appeared to be reviving under the influence 
of the pure air sweeping across the bridge. His step was gradually 
becoming more firm and elastic, but all at once he came to a sudden 
pause and threw up his head as if some new element of life had been 
infused into his veins. He stood quietly in this position for several 
minutes, with an appearance of delight and pleasure, and seemed to be 
instinctively taking into his lungs full draughts of the fresh air which, 
he had so much needed, and which so revived him that in a short time 
he proceeded over the bridge with a vigorous step, without any support, 
from the men in attendance. Let it not be forgotten, then, that fresh 
air is just as important to a horse as his food or drink. 

“ The effects of air, vitiated by animal effluvia,” says Mr. Tomlin¬ 
son, in his Rudimentary Treatise on Warming and Ventilation, “is, 
evident in the diseases of the lower animals when crowded together in 
confined places. The glanders of horses, the pip of fowls, and a pecu¬ 
liar disease in sheep, all arise from this cause, and it is stated that for- 
some years past, the English nation has been saved £10,000 a year, in 
consequence of the army veterinary surgeons adopting a plan for the* 
ventilation of the cavalry stables.” 

The same writer quotes the well known Dr. Arnott, who alludes to> 
the want of knowledge among all classes on the subject of ventilation, 
and states that he had heard at the Zoological Gardens of a class of 
animals where fifty out of sixty were killed in a month from putting 
them into a house which had no opening in it but a few inches in the 


floor. It is pointedly added that this was like putting the animals un¬ 
der an extinguisher. 

A noted lawyer of New York, whose name I do not feel at liberty 
to give in these pages, applied to me to ventilate his stables, saying 
that he had just sold, or more properly given away, a pair of horses, 
for which he had recently paid $0,000, in consequence of their sight 
becoming so much impaired as to render them nearly useless. He at¬ 
tributed the disaster to imperfect ventilation, but did not know how to 
remedy the difficulty. He had employed a leading architect to venti¬ 
late his art gallery, library, kitchen, &c., but his efforts were fruitless, 
and he was very zealous in the hope that I might produce better re¬ 
sults by my improved system of ventilation. 

I have ventilated a great many stables belonging to the wealthy 
citizens of New York, and always with entire success. The atmosphere 
•of those stables is generally stifling and offensive in a marked degree, 
and that horses confined within them should become blind, or sicken 
and die, need not excite our wonder. When those stables are properly 
ventilated, the air within them is always sweet and wholesome, and 
the horses are in no danger of losing their health or their lives. 

There is another reason why horse stables should be ventilated. 
The air within them is charged with ammoniacal vapors, which is not 
only injurious to horses, but tends to destroy the paint and varnish on 
carriages in a very short time. I have ventilated stables from this 
consideration alone, having no reference to the health of the horses. 

Cow Stables. —These, as well as horse stables, should be well venti¬ 
lated, for milk is an indispensable article of food, and no cow can fur¬ 
nish wholesome milk if she is forced to breathe a foul or contaminated 
air. We need not expect to find pure milk where we have not pure 
air. The poison of contaminated air finds its way through the lungs 
into the blood of the animal, and the milk inevitably partakes of the 
poison. Much of the milk sold in New York is of this poisonous 
character. For illustration, I would refer to “an inspector’s report of 
the cow stable nuisance,” as given to the public through the daily pa¬ 
pers by our new Health Board. The stables referred to were devoid 
of light, ventilation, and sewerage, being overcrowded and overheated, 
with filthy, disgusting stalls, and a filthy condition of the animals them¬ 
selves. The yard, says the report, was filthy and wet, made so by the 
manure, urine, and water, which emitted a vile odor. These offensive 


matters flowed through a ditch into a “ a good sized stagnant pond/" 
which occupied the ground, constituting “ a decided nuisance, perni¬ 
cious to health and comfort.” So says the report. The owner of the 
cows, whose name is to be seen upon his milk wagons, is A. Dettinger, 
Fiftieth Street, between Ninth and Tenth Avenues. If this Mr. Det- 
tinger should be punished, we think it would be sufficient to force him 
to drink the milk from his own cows. 

Professor JDoremus, in a lecture lately delivered before the Free 

Academy, in this city, on electricity as a motive power, suggested that a 


new electric engine, invented by Mr. L. C. Stewart, to which he called 
special attention, might be found useful in propelling the street cars,, 
instead of using so many horses, and remarked incidentally, that the- 
presence in our city of one hundred thousand horses, or more, with 
their accumulated fecal and renal secretions, constantly exhaling a foul 
odor into the atmosphere, must have more or less of a pernicious influ¬ 
ence upon the health; and he thought it would be well, in a sanitary 
point of view, if we could dispense with some of our horses, and use a 
motor such as the above in their place. 



We copy the following article, under the above title, from Dr. Mor¬ 
ris Mattson’s “Facts for the People,” &c., from which we have previ¬ 
ously quoted upon the subject of foul or noxious air : 

“ New York city being the great commercial emporium of the Uni¬ 
ted States,” says Dr. Mattson, “we have a great deal of wealth, with 
all of the refinement and luxury which usually accompanies it, and par¬ 
ticularly very splendid up town residences, which are sometimes desig¬ 
nated 'palaces . This is all very well, but when it is found that these 
palaces are frequently in close connection with horse and cow stables, one 
begins to lose his relish for what may be considered the fascinations 
and charms of fashionable life. If indeed, one is a lover of pure, sweet 
air, one would be more likely to sigh for a cottage upon the hillside, 
than a palace in the city. 

“ But our chief business, in this article, is to speak of a certain up¬ 
town palace, owned by a certain wealthy gentleman, who was the owner 
also of four or five splendid horses, costing him five or six thousand, 
dollars apiece, and an equally splendid cow, which he had selected from. 


the finest breeds, and for which he paid an exorbitant price. The horses 
were to gratify his own taste, the cow to gratify the taste of his wife, 
who had frequently told him that there was nothing so desirable as 
‘fresh milk ’ for the coffee, and fresh milk also for the children. She 
had heard about slop fed cows, and had no notion of using milk which 
came from such questionable sources ; she wanted pure, fresh milk 
from a cow of her own. 

“ This all looked very reasonable in theory, and the indulgent hus¬ 
band, having purchased the animals in question, was obliged to have a 
stable for their accommodation. But where to locate it was a difficult 
question to answer. He knew it was fashionable for New York mil¬ 
lionaires to have stables adjacent to their houses, and he had no objec¬ 
tion to being in the fashion, in this particular, but unfortunately, he 
had no spare ground upon which to erect a stable. After due consid¬ 
eration, there seemed to be but one alternative remaining, which was 
that of placing the stable under ground; and one of his poetical neigh¬ 
bors assured him that this was a ‘brilliant conception,’ inasmuch as 
the stable would be out of sight , and out of the ivay. The thought was 
not entertained for a moment that cows and horses need an abundance 
of fresh air ; that this fresh air, with its vitalizing oxygen, is quite as 
important to them as their daily food and drink. 

u The stable was finally completed, under the superintendence of a 
noted architect, who had it furnished with a number of ‘ ventilating 
flues,’ which, however, in accordance with one of Dr. Franklin’s no¬ 
tions, seemed more inclined to ‘ draw downwards ’ than upwards. In due 
time the cow and the horses were installed in their new quarters; but 
scarcely a week had elapsed, when it was discovered that the stable 
was emitting a most disagreeable odor. The ‘ ventilating flues ’ did 
not seem to be rendering much service. It happened about this time, 
that the gentleman of the palace was taking a walk before sunrise, 
scenting the keen, pure air of the morning; and upon his return, he 
very naturally opened the stable door to look in upon his splendid cow 
and favorite horses ; but, alas, his unwilling nostrils were saluted by 
such a perfume from the enclosure, as to render him quite uncertain 
as to whether he would require any breakfast, and he was not at all 
sure that the ‘fresh milk ’ from the cow, of which his wife had said so 
much, would be particularly agreeable in his coffee. 

“ Time passed on, and the cow began to droop and sicken; the 


horses also looked dull, weary and jaded, with all of' the signs of dis¬ 
ease, and it was deemed expedient to consult a veterinary surgeon in 
regard to their health. All this time the poor animals were sickening 
because they had not enough of pure air to breathe, and the atmos¬ 
phere which was generated in this close and confined stable, was too 
horrible for description. Escaping from the enclosure, it permeated 
the house, and was enough to sicken the whole family. Meanwhile, 
the milk of the cow was still used for family purposes, was given to the 
children, was put into the tea and coffee, and all without a suspicion 
that the milk was literally a poison. A cow cannot yield pure milk 
unless she has pure air to breathe ; shut her up m a close stable, so 
that the air about her will soon become contaminated by the poisonous 
carbonic acid gas from her lungs, and the foul emanations from her 
body, and she will soon show unmistakeable signs of disease. Her 
milk, in the meantime, will partake of the disease of her body ; indeed, 
it would seem as though the udder of the poor sick cow was a sort of 
drainage whereby nature sought to relieve her general system of some 
of its impurities. These impurities become incorporated with the milk, 
which is unfit to be taken into the human stomach. Every intelligent 
mother knows that her milk is influenced by the condition of her sys¬ 
tem. If she is peevish and fretful, (from well assigned causes, per¬ 
haps,) her nursing child will be peevish and fretful; if she partakes of 
food which deranges her digestive organs, her child will be sure, al¬ 
most, to suffer similar derangements ; if she swallows a cathartic, the 
cathartic effect of the drug will be manifest in the child through the 
influence of her milk. The cow is no exception to the rule, and her 
milk should never be given to tender infants and young children with¬ 
out feeling assured that the animal is perfectly healthy. 

“Stables, such as we have described, have frequently been venti¬ 
lated by Mr. Gouge, rendering the air pure and sweet, which is a great 
boon to the poor animals enclosed within them, and an equally great 
boon to the families to whom they belong, for, living in palaces, they 
should enjoy the comfort, and pleasure, and delight which properly 
belong to palatial residences, of which pure air is the first and most 
important item. 

“Houses and stables should not be adjacent to each other, or the 
latter, to say the least, should be ventilated in accordance with the plan 
which has been proposed and successfully executed by Mr. Gouge.” 



Many of our finest houses are rendered almost intolerable by the 
water closets, the foul odors of which may be detected from the base¬ 
ment to the attic, and yet the remedy is perfectly simple and easily ap¬ 
plied. The unwholesome odors and gases may be readily exchanged 
for the sweet pure air. In my mode of ventilating water closets, the 
foul air beneath the seat is made to ascend through a flue, by means of 
a rarified atmosphere, carrying with it cigar smoke or other disagree¬ 
able odors above the seat, or within the enclosure or apartment in which 
the closet is located ; and thus, the mingled impurities of the atmos¬ 
phere, so offensive to the sense of smell, and so injurious to the health, 
are scattered upon the wings of the wind. I have ventilated numerous 
closets for our wealthy families, and always to their great delight and 


These should always be ventilated, whether they exist in public 
places or private houses. Even the accustomed smoker would be bet¬ 
ter not to inhale over and over again the smoke emitted from his cigar 
or pipe. Nor is the idea a very pleasant one of taking into one’s lungs 
the tobacco smoke which proceeds from the mouth of another, mingled 
usually with an offensive breath, and not unfrequently the noxious efflu¬ 
via from ulcerated gums and decaying teeth. No true gentleman, who 
seeks the indulgence of his cigar, will allow himself to inflict the smoke 
upon others who may regard it as a nuisance. Hence ventilation is 
necessary ; and in that case you may smoke your cigar in the presence 
of your wife or daughter, or some anti-tobacco friend, without creating 
a feeling of unpleasantness or disgust. Where smoking rooms are not 
ventilated, the paper upon the walls, the furniture, and every thing 
within the room, become saturated with the smoke, and are rendered 
very disagreeable. Many fine houses have been ruined by excessive cigar 
smoking, as the walls and wood work retain the tobacco odor for a long 
period. Besides, your dresses become so tainted by the smoke as to 
render you disagreeable, in many instances, to ladies and gentlemen 
seated near you in cars, omnibuses and public places Every consider¬ 
ation then of refinement and delicacy, with a due regard for the com¬ 
fort, well being and health of those about you, should either prompt 
you to give up the habit of smoking, or to have your apartments ven- 


tilated so as to conduct the smoke quickly away. Even the health of 
your wife may suffer from the poisonous effects of your cigar; and yet 
she may not complain, as she does not wish to deprive you of any of 
your enjoyments. Rooms ventilated by my process are at once freed 
from the smoke, as well as any other impurity in the atmosphere, so 
that there is no taint nor disagreeable odor left behind. 


Cellars, Basements, &c., may be supplied with a pure and dry air 
by my process of ventilation, so as to be fit places of abode, or suitable 
for the storage of goods which otherwise might be injured by the 
dampness. Attention to this matter would be the means, oftentimes, 
of saving thousands of dollars to the merchant, by the preservation of 
his goods, to say nothing of the preservation of the health and lives of 
the occupants of those places. 

There was a basement some years ago in Courtlandt Street, adjoin¬ 
ing the Western Hotel, devoted to the sale of “ Yankee Notions,” in 
which were included many articles of hardware, which, owing to damp¬ 
ness, rusted badly, so that a large amount of property was destroyed, 
or rendered unsaleable. In addition to this, a very useful employee of 
the establishment was constantly indisposed and finally left his situa¬ 
tion, believing that the place was unhealthy. Under these circum¬ 
stances I was employed to ventilate the place, and after my task was 
accomplished, there was no more rusting of the goods, and the invalid 
employee returned to his post without making further complaints of ill 



Millions of money are expended annually in the cultivation and 
perfection of fruit, which is becoming almost a mania with many of our 
fruit growers ; and out of this has arisen a heavy and profitable busi¬ 
ness in fruit. 

Eruit rooms are needed by all dealers in fruit, by the keepers of 
hotels and restaurants, by exporters of fruit, and by families who pur¬ 
chase fruit in considerable quantities as a luxury. The fruit thus 
accumulated is worth hundreds, and frequently thousands, of dollars, 
and as it is extremely liable to perish, it is important to improve the 


method by which it can be preserved. What is required for this pur¬ 
pose, is a pure dry air, and the instant abstraction, as soon as it is 
formed, of every noxious gas, along with a properly regulated temper¬ 
ature ; all of which conditions are furnished by my mode of ventilation. 
Strawberries, which are the most perishable of all the fruits, have been 
kept in a good condition for ten days, and ripe peaches for three weeks. 
These experiments have been made repeatedly, and particularly by 
Mr. David Tilton, of the Tompkins market, so that there can be no 
doubt of the correctness of my statement. 

Mr. Tilton was so well pleased with his success in preserving perish¬ 
able fruits, that he employed me to construct a fruit house for him on 
board of the steamer Liberty, Capt. Wilson, about to sail for Havanna, 
for the purpose of exporting peaches and pears to that city. Let it be 
here understood that three quarters of the peaches and pears forwarded 
to Havanna, although packed in ice with great care, perish before their 
arrival at that port. I constructed a house for Mr. Tilton in the hold 
of the vessel, (the last place that would be dreamed of for the preserv¬ 
ation of delicate and perishable fruits,) large enough to receive four 
hundred baskets of peaches and Bartlett pears. The fruit was duly 
put on board, but wdth the belief of every body but Mr. Tilton and my¬ 
self, that but few, if any, of the peaches and pears would ever arrive 
in a sound condition at their place of destination. This opinion was 
regarded as all the more plausible because the fruit was in the hold of 
the vessel, where we expect to find the odor of bilge water and various 
noxious gases. The vessel sailed, and in nine days the fruit was taken 
out of the house in which it had been enclosed, and with the exception 
of about a peck of peaches, in close proximity with the ventilating pipe, 
it was found in a perfect condition, and according to Mr. Mills, the 
steward, (wdio, by the way, had prophesied that not a single peach nor 
pear would ever reach Havannah in a sound state,) it could have been 
returned to New York in an equally good and wholesome condition. 
The secret of this desirable preservation of fruit lies chiefly in the ready 
abstraction from the fruit chamber of every noxious gas, which, if per¬ 
mitted to remain, would cause the speedy destruction of the fruit. 


In many cases this is exceedingly important. With proper ventila¬ 
tion, the moisture is prevented from accumulating upon the glass, 


which freezes when the weather is sufficiently cold, and renders the 
glass impervious to the sight. Besides, the freezing is liable to frac¬ 
ture the glass, which is usually quite expensive. A pane of glass in 
one of the show windows of the International Hotel, New York city, 
was fractured in this way, and could not be replaced short of several 
hundred dollars. 

My mode of ventilating a show window is different from that em¬ 
ployed in any other kind of ventilation, although the principle is obvi¬ 
ously the same. The store connected with the window may, if desired, 
be ventilated, as well as the window itself, and a pure, dry air furnished 
to the whole of the connecting apartments. 

A show window not ventilated is a hot, dry place in summer, and 
goods displayed in it are frequently injured, or rendered unsaleable. 
Straw goods are liable to be injured, and silks and ribbons have their 
colors changed Meat and poultry hung up in windows for display, 
are in much danger of spoiling. The very choicest goods which a store 
can produce, are generally placed in the show windows ; and it is de¬ 
sirable that they should be preserved from change or injury. This 
may be accomplished by my system of ventilation, which has been suc¬ 
cessfully adopted. 


Refrigerators of the smaller sizes abound in the market, and are 
purchased largely by families on account of their cheapness. Some of 
them claim to be ventilated, but it is in a very limited degree, and con¬ 
sequently articles of food cannot be preserved in them for a long pe¬ 
riod. Every refrigerator, whether large or small, should be perfectly 
ventilated , whereby all the noxious or unwholesome gases which are con¬ 
stantly forming are carried off, and pure, dry, cold air furnished in 
their place. It is only under these conditions that food is wholesome, 
or fit to be eaten, for if foul air is allowed to accumulate in the refrig¬ 
erator, it will be absorbed by the food, and its healthful qualities more 
or less impaired. It is the presence of this foul air which causes food 
to undergo decomposition, rendering it thereby unfit for use. 

Refrigerators of a small size may be ventilated by my method but 
I do not pretend to furnish them to the public Refrigerators on a 
large scale, however, together with fruit and provision closets, and 
meat houses, I am always ready to construct to order, and I have no 



evidence that they can be thoroughly and efficiently ventilated except¬ 
ing by the plan which I have secured by my Letters Patent. 

The air is always pure, sweet, and dry in my ventilated refrigera¬ 
tors, and X have stated elsewhere that fresh meat will keep within 
them, during the hot weather of summer, for three weeks, and retain 
in the meantime its red color ; strawberries will keep ten days ; ripe 
peaches and delicate pears will keep three weeks, or longer, and so on 
to the end of a long chapter. The odor of one kind of food, however 
strong, will not be imparted to any other, because the odors and gases, 
as already explained, are not retained sufficiently long to undergo ab¬ 
sorption by the provisions present. 

The reader is referred to my Certificates, in another part of this 
pamphlet, in proof of my assertions, and I only ask of the public to 
judge me by my works. 


It is a curious fact that fresh meat, suddenly frozen, will undergo a 
destructive change in its central or interior parts, so as to be unfit for 
use. Dr. Kane mentions a similar fact as taking place in the Arctic 
regions, with the thermometer fifty or sixty degrees below zero. The 
walrus, and other meats, which he was enabled to obtain in those high 
latitudes, freezing suddenly, underwent decomposition in the interior, 
greatly to his surprise, and could not be used as food. The pork pack¬ 
ers acknowledge the loss of pork, now and then, from a similar cause. 
I know of but one explanation of the phenomenon. The frozen crust 
of the meat is probably impervious to the gases of the interior, so that 
they cannot escape, and decomposition ensues precisely in the same 
way that fresh meat decomposes or putrefies in a close, unventilated 
refrigerator, notwithstanding the presence of ice. One thing at least 
is very apparent, namely, that in preserving fresh meat, we need some¬ 
thing more than a cold atmosphere, and I have elsewhere stated that 
in my ventilated refrigerators a temperature of only fifty degrees is all 
that is required for the preservation of fresh meat. 

In contrast with the facts above stated, it is equally curious that in 
some sections of our country, and also in some parts of Mexico, fresh 
meat hung up in the open air, without any salt, even in the hot weather 
of summer, will not undergo any unfavorable change, but gradually 


dry up and remain fit for food. The explanation is that certain pre¬ 
vailing winds sweep away all of the gases exhaled by the meat, as fast 
as they appear, so that there are no noxious agencies remaining by 
which the meat can be decomposed. 

There is a curious fact also, in relation to milk, the interior portion 
of which frequently becomes sour, while the exterior portions continue 
sweet. This change takes place, notwithstanding the milk may be 
placed in a cold refrigerator, and the change occurs more speedily 
when the vessel containing the milk is closely covered. This difficulty 
in relation to milk has induced many of our citizens to apply to me for 
ventilated milk houses, which they have used with much satisfaction, 
and which should have a place in every hotel, restaurant, and private 

Butter, as well as milk, is extremely sensitive to the influence of a 
pent up and foul atmosphere, such as we usually find in refrigerators. 
A foul or strong odor will taint the very best butter in a very short 
time. Those who are using my ventilated hitter houses and refrigerators , 
have no trouble in keeping their butter sweet and good for a long pe¬ 
riod of time. 

With regard to the preservation of milk, I might quote several au¬ 
thorities, but will content myself with that of the well known Mrs. Gr. 
S. Bobbins, who deserves so well of her country for the noble services 
which she rendered to our suffering soldiers at the McDougall Hospi¬ 
tal, at Fort Schuyler. One of my large refrigerators was placed in the 
Hospital through her influence, and after the use of it for six months 
in connection with the “Ladies’ Kitchen,” she says—“It is certainly a 
most admirable invention, enabling us to keep, in the most perfect 
preservation, during the unusual heat of the past summer, milk, poul¬ 
try, meats, fruits, vegetables, &c., with, as I have frequently heard the 
steward remark, a very economical consumption of ice.” 



Banking houses are usually much in need of ventilation, because 
the directors, cashier, clerks, and others employed undergoing much se¬ 
vere labor, need a full and constant supply of fresh air ; it is equally 
important that the poisonous carbonic acid gas which is given off at 
overy breath from their lungs, and the poisonous effluvia also which is 


exhaled from their bodies, should be carried speedily away from the 
apartments; for if breathed oyer and over again, as is always the case 
where ventilation is deficient, the blood, according to the testimony of 
physicians, undergoes deterioration, and disease is often an inevitable 

The well known New York Bank may be mentioned as an instance 
of this imperfect ventilation, which came to my knowledge through 
the instrumentality of Judge Henry Hilton, of New York city, whose 
stable I had ventilated very much to his satisfaction. Owing to this 
circumstance he was kind enough to give me a letter of introduction to 
the Cashier of the above Bank, the well known Mr. Meeker, suggest¬ 
ing that it would be well to employ me to ventilate the place. I found 
that the frequent complaints of its imperfect ventilation were well 
founded. The atmosphere was extremely close and vitiated. Much 
had been done to ventilate the place, but all efforts had proved unsuc¬ 
cessful. A number of flues had been constructed so as to open into the 
Cashier’s room, with the hope of obtaining adequate ventilation, but it 
answered no good purpose. I proceeded at once to put my system of 
ventilation into operation, and it was no sooner accomplished than 
every person employed in the Cashier’s room perceived an immediate 
and almost magical change in the atmosphere. Compared with the 
depressing influence of the foul air which they had been so long accus¬ 
tomed to breathe, it was like some delicious and renovating ether; and 
it had the effect, as I am informed, of restoring one of the clerks, who 
had been for a long time an invalid, to very good health. I have not 
thought of availing myself of my patent as a means of curing disease, 
but I get such marked and brilliant results, now and then, in that di¬ 
rection, that I feel constrained to speak of pure air as one of the very 
best remedies or panaceas which we possess. 



Post-offices, like banking houses, need ventilation now and then. 
The mail bags and leather pouches, when exposed to a damp atmos¬ 
phere, are liable to become mouldy, and the atmosphere itself is very 
objectionable to those who have any regard for their health. All that 
is here said will apply to the post-office in Washington City, which I 
had the pleasure of ventilating, and I cannot well refrain from append- 


ing the following letter by the Hon. S. J. Bowen, the postmaster. The 
letter was written to a gentleman in New York city, without a suspicion, 
so far as I know, that it would come under my observation. 

Washington, December 20, I 860 . 

Mr. Gay: There has been in operation in the Post Office in this city one of 
Gouge’s Ventilators for the past two months. It was put in for the purpose of 
ventilating the basement in which are stored the mail bags and pouches, from 
which a supply for other offices is drawn. 

Before the Ventilator was put up the air in the room was damp and impure, 
so much so as to be very disagreeable and unhealthy to persons remaining in 
it any length of time; and the leather pouches would be covered with mould 
and the sacks and bags with mildew. The Ventilator has removed both the bad 
air and the dampness, and a person can discover no difference in the air from 
that in the rooms above. The pouches and bags are now perfectly dry, and we 
think the Ventilator has already saved to the Department double its cost in 
preventing injury to them. 

It was put up as an experiment, to be paid for if it succeeded. We would 
not have it removed for any consideration whatever. I think it will be very 
generally adopted in this city. Truly yours, &c., 

S. J. BOWEN, Postmaster . 

The experiment of ventilating the Washington Post-office having 
been entirely successful, it attracted the attention of Jay Cooke and 
Geo. W. Biggs, the noted bankers, who were so much pleased with 
what had been done, that each one complimented me with an order to 
ventilate his banking house in Washington city. 


These are not unfrequently pervaded by a damp atmosphere, which 
causes books, papers and documents to become mouldy. Proper venti¬ 
lation will render the air pure and dry, so that there will be no ten¬ 
dency of the books and papers to mould. 


These magazines, I am informed, are very liable to become damp, 
which injures the powder, destroying its granular condition and caus¬ 
ing it to form into concrete masses. An ordnance officer at the Brook¬ 
lyn Navy Yard, who had acquired some knowledge of my system of 
ventilation, suggested to me that it would be likely to prove valuable 
in connexion with powder magazines, and confirmed what is mentioned 


above in relation to the powder. He felt persuaded that my atmospheric 
ventilator would obviate every difficulty, and save much money to the 
government and others who deal in the article. He spoke in commend¬ 
ation of another feature of the apparatus, which, no doubt, would be a 
desideratum, namely, the safe and efficient light which it would afford 
to the interior of the magazine. This light, it may be added, would be 
free from all danger of causing an explosion of the powder. 


My method of ventilation can be applied to sailing vessels, steam¬ 
boats, emigrant ships, &c., as easily and successfully as to schoolrooms, 
churches, kitchens, sleeping rooms, or parlors, and yet I have never 
had an opportunity of ventilating a sea-going vessel. I was applied to 
by Commodore Foot, just previous to his death, to examine the receiv¬ 
ing ship North Carolina, lying at our Navy Yard, which he was very 
anxious to have ventilated, but the matter was referred to the authori¬ 
ties at Washington, and before it was decided, the death of Commodore 
Foot took place at the Astor House. Since then there has been no 
action in the matter. I hope I may yet have an opportunity of render¬ 
ing my services in this species of ventilation. 

An old sea captain tells me that the hold of a ship, in which the 
cargo is principally stored, is sure to become very damp, if ventilation 
is not resorted to, and a copious condensation of moisture will take 
place on the under surface of the deck and the sides of the vessel. The 
water thus condensed will fall from the deck upon the cargo and injure 
or destroy all perishable goods, as silks, cloths, sugars, teas, &c. As 
efficient ventilation would prevent the difficulties here spoken of, mer¬ 
chants and shippers might save themselves from heavy losses without 
much expenditure of money. Ventilation would also preserve the tim¬ 
bers of a ship, which are rotted by foul air. Ships, it would seem, are 
sometimes completely rotted by foul air within the short period of three 
years. It would certainly be economy for every ship owner to incur a 
slight expense in ventilating his ship, rather than to take his chance of 
its total destruction. 



If it is not desirable for people to go to sleep during divine service, 

then it is important to ventilate your churches. It is not always dull 





sermons that make people drowsy; it is much more frequently the foul 
air of a church, which deadens all of the faculties of the mind, and in¬ 
duces that drowsy condition, so unpleasant to the individual, and yet 
so difficult to be overcome. Sleepiness in church, and in other public 
places in which human beings are densely packed together, is not dis¬ 
similar, in many instances, from the sleepiness and stupor induced by 
breathing the carbonic acid gas emitted from a charcoal furnace in a 
close room. The lungs of the auditors are indeed so many charcoal 
furnaces, throwing out every instant copious volumes of carbonic acid 
gas; and as churches are seldom or never ventilated, it is no wonder 
that people go to sleep. The only wonder is that they do not frequently 
go to sleep never again to wake, and it will yet be found and acknow¬ 
ledged by those who investigate hygienic and sanitary laws, that human 
life is frequently shortened by a slow and gradual process of poisoning, 
induced by the noxious air of churches and other public places. 

It is my privilege, I trust, though I do not do it with any captious 
spirit, to speak of a well known church in which a new experiment in 
ventilation was tried. And, by the way, if ever a church needed ven¬ 
tilation, it was that one. It is densely crowded, particularly in the 
evenings, and if any one wishes to know how much lad air he can in¬ 
hale, in the course of two hours, without undergoing positive suffoca¬ 
tion or asphyxia, he has only to make an evening visit to said church. 
The board of trustees finally concluded that a little less carbonic acid 
gas, and a little more pure, fresh air, would be a desideratum; and in 
accordance with this wise decision, they agreed to avail themselves of 
the services of an educated and distinguished gentleman who had intro¬ 
duced a new mode of ventilation, which was highly applauded by some 
of our popular journals. Explanations were made by him to those in¬ 
terested ; plans were drawn upon paper, and everything pertaining to 
the new method seemed to promise entire success. The experiment 
was duly undertaken; a large number of men were employed; the 
parties worked diligently for three months, and, as a matter of course, 
used up a large amount of money. Unfortunately, however, for some 
unexpected reason, the experiment did not work well, and finally, for 
the want of additional funds, the enterprise was suspended, never again 
to be resumed. 

Anxious to learn the particulars of the above experiment, and acci¬ 
dentally meeting the distinguished pastor of the church, with whom I 



liad not tlie pleasure of an acquaintance, I nevertheless took the lib¬ 
erty of interrogating him upon the subject. Pausing for a moment, he 
made this sententious, emphatic, and characteristic reply, the woids of 
which I can put on paper, but without giviug any idea of the peculiar 
inflections of his voice, or the curious blending, as it seemed to me, of 
the humor and pathos which he infused into his answer. He said— 
“They have been at work three months; they have expended three thou¬ 
sand dollars ; and they have not got fresh air enough into the church to 
feed three flies. ” 

I have had an informal application to ventilate the above church, 
and if an arrangement should be made, I will agree—my motto being 
“ No success, no pay ”—to ventilate the church efficiently for much 
less than the above amount, or charge nothing for my services. I 
would so arrange the ventilation as to furnish an abundant supply of 
pure and warm air in the winter, while in the summer the heat radia¬ 
ted from the numerous gas burners should not be felt. I would also 
relieve the congregation from the uncomfortable draughts of air pro¬ 
ceeding from the windows in the galleries, which are thrown open du¬ 
ring the services for the admission of fresh air in order that the people 
may not actually undergo suffocation. 

Let this church be properly ventilated, and the noted pastor, though 
he may not be more eloquent and impassioned, will be likely to add ten 
additional years to his pastoral life. Constant dropping, it is said, will 
wear out a stone ; and so the breathing of foul air, at frequent intervals, 
along with great physical and mental effort, cannot fail to make an ul¬ 
timate impression, even upon the healthful and vigorous system of the 
pastor in question. It was found that the soldiers in the English bar¬ 
racks, near London, in consequence of imperfect ventilation, did not 
live as long by ten years, upon an average, as the agricultural popula¬ 
tion, outside of the barracks, under similar conditions of life, excepting 
that they had a pure and wholesome air. 



Chimneys are an old institution—so old, indeed, that we are unable 
to determine who was the inventor, or in what country they were first 
employed. We are told of chimneys in Venice before the middle of 
the fourteenth century; in Padua, before 1368 ; and of a certain lord 


of Padua who came to Pome, and finding no chimneys in the inn 


where he lodged, because at that time fire was kindled in a hole in the 
middle of the floor, he caused two chimneys, like those that had long; 
been used in Padua, to be constructed by the work people he had 
brought with him. But the claim of the Italians to the invention of 
chimneys is questioned upon the supposition that they existed in Eng¬ 
land as early as the twelfth century. However this may be, chimneys, 
began to multiply during the reign of the Tudors, and the subject be¬ 
coming invested with a sort of artistic interest, it was said that “ the 
chimney shaft became a prominent and beautiful feature in buildings.’* 
A little later on, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, chimneys were 
regarded as an indispensable “luxury”—that is the historic word— 
and apologies were made to visitors if they could not be accommodated 
with rooms provided with chimneys. Ladies, it is said, were frequently 
sent out to other houses in which they could enjoy, as already quoted, 
“the luxury of a chimney.” We have sadly deteriorated since the 
reign of “ Queen Bess,” for, although three centuries have elapsed, our 
houses are so constructed that the existence of a room with a chimney 
is rather the exception than the rule. Hence, the question has been 
pertinently asked by a distinguished writer—“When will architects 
and builders be convinced of the fact that fire-places, as well as human 
beings, require constant supplies of fresh air, and that it is their duty 
to provide every room with air-channels, placed so as to feed the fire 
without annoying the inmates.” 

Although we have a better ventilation with a chimney than without 
it, yet it is incumbent upon me to point out the comparatively imperfect 
ventilation which a chimney usually affords. A chimney or flue is de¬ 
scribed by Hr. Arnott as a pump—“a sticking or drawing air-pump,,’* 
which is relied upon as a means of producing an upward, current of air., 
and thereby procuring efficient ventilation. But that it notoriously 
fails is confirmed by our every day experience. We find houses, sta¬ 
bles, and public buildings supplied with chimneys, and yet we do not 
find good ventilation. I have spoken of the offensive condition of the 
atmosphere in the stable of Mr. Paran Stevens, and yet there was an 
ample flue at the head of each stall, with a large trap or ventilator in 
the sky-light. If flues could have been of service, Mr. Stevens ought 
to have had a good atmosphere in his stable. I have spoken also of 
the New York Bank as having a number of flues opening into the cash- 


ier s room, but without any good result in the way of ventilation. I 
have ventilated so many foul places in which there were flues or chim- 
neys, that I need no other proof of the total inadequacy of this mode 
of ventilation. 

I have spoken of the upward currents of air in chimneys, and if we 
could have those upward currents continually in motion, the problem 
of ventilation would be solved, and we should be troubled no more with 
a foul or vitiated atmosphere. But instead of these upward currents, it 
is a fact that we frequently have downward currents , and here is the real 
difficulty. Chimneys are not always then a luxury, as in the days of 
Queen Elizabeth. It has been conceded by many distinguished writ¬ 
ers, including Dr. Franklin, that the currents in chimneys are irregu¬ 
lar, passing downward frequently as well as upward. It has been stated 
that chimneys situated in the north wall of a house do not draw so well 
as those in a south wall, because when cooled by north winds they are 
apt to u draw downwards Dr. Franklin has an elaborate explanation 
-of what he terms the ascending and descending currents in chimneys, 
which vary according to the period of the day, or particular seasons of 
the year. I have frequently satisfied myself of the existence of those 
downward currents in the flues of horse stables, which I have so fre¬ 
quently ventilated for our wealthy citizens, and in which the atmos¬ 
phere is usually very offensive. A gentleman of distinction, connected 
with the New York Historical Society, applied to me to ventilate the 
rooms of the Society, and stated that according to his experience and 
observations, currents of air came down flues or chimneys oftener than 
they go up. 

A heated flue, it may be remarked, is of course more efficient than 
one not heated, but even this does not always furnish a good ventila¬ 
tion ; and I desire, in this place, to invite attention to the important 
fact, that heat communicated to a chimney from a stove, furnace, range, 
or other fire, is far less powerful or efficient for ventilating purposes 
than heat originating directly within the flue. This fact lies at the 
foundation of all my improvements in ventilation, as will be explained 
more fully hereafter. 

Divided flues , or what perhaps may be termed double flues , have had 
some reputation in this country as a means of ventilation. This we 
believe is an English idea engrafted upon our stock of American notions 
and devices. It presupposes an out draught of heated air from the in- 


terior of a building, through one tube or flue, with an insetting cur¬ 
rent of the colder external air through the other tube. In cold weather 
we have, without doubt, such a result as this, but when the external 
air is only a few degrees colder than that within the building, we be¬ 
lieve it is not claimed that the action within the tubes is such as to 
produce any perceptible ventilation. During the greater portion of the a 
summer, therefore, we should be without ventilation, while in winter, we 
may have such a volume of cold air rushing into our apartments, as to 
render the atmosphere chilly or uncomfortable. The Legislative Hall 
at Albany was ventilated upon this plan in 1862, but I never under¬ 
stood that the experiment was successful. 





When we deal with a motive power, and wish to produce practical 
results, we know that the cause must be equal to the effect. All systems 
of ventilation, therefore, which do not recognise an adequate motive 
power, must be failures ; and thus we have had repeated failures in 
in this department of art and science, notwithstanding very plausible 
and apparently brilliant theories, which, in some instances, have- 
seemed to captivate the judgment of able and distinguished men. 

Theories should not be valued in reference to ventilation, unless it 
is shown that they are in correspondence with practical results of an 
unquestionable and satisfactory character. If a church, kitchen, par¬ 
lor, stable, banking house, or other place, is to be ventilated, the first 
question should be, can the foul air be got out, and pure air be made 
to take its place. If the answer is yes, and the work is duly accom¬ 
plished, it will be time enough to look after a theory, or to discuss 
problems in science and philosophy. 

* Description of Cut, opposite to Title Page. —A glass lantern. B, suc¬ 
tion pipe or due. C, opening in flue, near the floor, for the admission of air and 
carbonic acid gas. D, diaphram for regulating the admission of air to the gas jet. 
E, gas pipe and gas jet. G, interior flue for concentrating the heated air. II, as¬ 
cending portion of ventilating flue. I, aperture in flue for admission of heated 
and vitiated air. J, register for opening or closing the aperture I. K, weather 

12^ The arrows indicate the up-moving currents of air. 


When air is made to ascend through a flue in virtue of a positive, 
irresistible force, which has been created artificially, then, and not till 
then, shall we have a perfect ventilation ; and this desideratum accom¬ 
plished, we need not trouble nor vex ourselves about the upward and 
downward currents of air in chimneys, or other nice theoretical ques¬ 
tions or problems. 

The motive force to which reference is made above, is the one 
through which our mode of ventilation is always accomplished. It 
consists of heated currents of air, which ascend through a flue, and by 
the strong ascensional power which is thus created, every vestige of 
foul air—every unpleasant odor—every atom of the noxious gases—are 
carried irresistibly away and scattered to the four winds. 

The air within the ventilator is heated and rarified by a jet of burn¬ 
ing gas, or other convenient flame, as already described, (see Descrip¬ 
tion of Cut, opposite Title Page) and it is this device which we have 
secured by Letters Patent—which has enabled us to ventilate so many 
foul places to the entire satisfaction of our employers. We will assert 
again, that a jet of gas burning within a flue, has a remarkable power 
in rarifying the air and producing powerful up-moving currents. Heat 
communicated to a flue or chimney by a stove, or furnace, external to 
it, as previously stated, is not to be compared with this in its power of 
producing ascensional currents, and withal, cannot be employed so con¬ 
tinuously, nor with so little expense as the jet of gas. 

The apparatus, as a whole, with its lantern, flues, &c., constitutes 
what is termed “ Gouge's Atmospheric Ventilator ,” and when properly 
adjusted, will effectually ventilate the dampest cellar or basement, the 
deepest subterranean vault, or the foulest “ black hole ” that can be 
imagined, or brought within the range of its power. 

The expense of the gas used for ventilating purposes is trifling. Com¬ 
mencing with an ordinary burner, we soon establish a strong up-mov¬ 
ing current within the ventilator, which, after a short time, can be 
maintained by a feeble jet of gas, not amounting to more than one 
foot per hour. Thus we have an efficient motive power, operating con¬ 
stantly, day and night, without the necessity of any supervision or at¬ 
tendance, producing the most satisfactory ventilation, and furnishing a 
full supply of fresh air to one's kitchen, stable, sleeping room, or other 

Adaptation of the Ventilatok, &c.—Simple and obvious as is the 


principle of ventilation herein set forth, yet the proper adaptation of the 
apparatus to the various uses which the public require is often extremely 
difficult. Indeed, it is only by long experience, and a close application 
to the business in which I am engaged, that I have become successful; 
and I am free to confess that I have often made failures in my first at- 
tempts at ventilation, but in no instance have I ever abandoned a task 
which I had undertaken until I succeeded to the satisfaction of myself 
and the parties employing me. There are many important points which 
must not be overlooked in arranging plans for ventilation, for the adap¬ 
tation of the means to the end varies with the place and locality—va¬ 
ries also with the character of the ventilation required. There are 
many details which need special attention, as, for example, the calibre 
of the ventilating pipes ; the best position of the pipes in relation to the 
apartment to be ventilated; the proper adjustment of them in those 
cases in which from necessity they require to be partly horizontal; and 
the proper arrangement or adjustment also of their orifices, which is a 
matter of the very first importance. 

It is not common for individuals, engaged in a specialty, to speak 
of failures in their business or profession, but I prefer to do so. Some 
years ago, the well known Mr. Ives, the proprietor of the Albemarle 
Hotel, in New York city, employed me to ventilate his larder or pro¬ 
vision house for a stipulated sum. I made several failures in the at¬ 
tempt, known only to myself, and expended five times as much money as 
I was to receive for the work. Finally, however, I succeeded, to the en¬ 
tire satisfaction of Mr. Ives, and his card of commendation may be seen 
among my testimonials in another place. Since then he has employed 
me to ventilate other parts of his house. I make these statements for 
no other purpose than to show how much care and judgment are re¬ 
quired to accomplish the work of ventilation successfully. 

Leading Points of the Ventilatoe. —1. It is simple in its con¬ 
struction, and never gets out of repair. 2. It requires no skill in its 
use, and no one to be in attendance, excepting to light the gas in the 
lantern. 3. It costs but a trifle for the gas by which it is kept in 
operation, and is therefore extremely economical. 4. It can be readily 
introduced into any house, building, or enclosure which requires to be 
ventilated. 5. It will remove the foul air quickly, and as no other 
method of ventilation, ever yet discovered, is capable of doing. See 
address to “ Architects and Builders,” page 11. 




Professor Draper’s Mode of Ventilation.— Professor Draper, who 
is highly distinguished as an author and man of science, recently 
published a Text Book on Physiology. Hygiene, &c., from which we 
have taken a motto for our title page, and from which, also, we pur¬ 
pose to make brief extracts in relation to foul, damp air and ventilation. 
We do this chiefly to show that the mode of ventilation he has pointed 
out, as a sort of necessity, we presume, for family emergencies, is 
troublesome and incomplete compared with the plan to which we invite 
public attention. 

“It is said,” remarks Prof. Draper in his new book, “that in many 
of the houses in New York the servants first light the fires and pump 
the water out of the cellars; though this may be an exaggeration, we 
all know that a damp cellar is the rule, and a dry one the exception. 
* * # It is therefore very important that the cellar of every house, 

whether private or tenement, should be properly cleansed, dried, and 
ventilated during the years when the epidemic diseases are raging, if 
at no other time. # # # In the winter season the furnace will gen¬ 

erally produce a sufficient ventilation of the cellar, and prevent the foul 
air entering the house ; but in the spring and summer, when cholera 
commences to rage with tbe greatest violence, the furnace is then ex¬ 
tinguished, and there is no ventilation of the cellar. At this time the 
danger which impends may to a great extent be avoided by placing a 
small stove in it, in which a fire should be kept burning continually,” &c. 

Without assuming to discuss this matter, it must be obvious that a 
fire cannot be kept continually burning in a stove without considerable 
expense, and a great deal of care and trouble in watching the fire. 
Besides, the fire is liable to go out, from the negligence of the servant, 
and thus the absence of ventilation for a time, and more than likely 
for a whole night, may be the critical moment when the cholera, or 
stone other disease, will number us among its unwilling victims. By 
the use of our Ventilator, we have a perpetual motive power, which 
will cost but a trifle, and which will be a faithful guardian of our 
health, so far as ventilation is concerned, whether the servants be 
asleep or awake. Moreover, the Ventilator will not only furnish an 
abundant supply of dry air, in place of the foul, damp, and noxious 
air, so aptly described by Prof. Draper, but it will afford an agreeable 
light to one’s cellar without any increase of the heat, which is not 
needed, to say the least, in summer. 


Advantages of the Ventilatob. —It removes foul air, unpleasant 
odors, and all noxious gases, as heretofore stated, and furnishes a con¬ 
stant supply of pure, sweet, dry air in their place, which should he a 
primary consideration with all who have a regard for their health, 
comfort, or lives. 

It will furnish a bountiful supply of pure air to one’s kitchen, so 
that one’s food will be in a more wholesome condition for use, and if 
one’s wife or daughter should go into the kitchen to superintend culi¬ 
nary, or other duties, she can return to the parlor without having the 
disgusting kitchen odor upon her dress or person. Bishop Hughes has 
said that every young woman, however wealthy or accomplished, should 
graduate in the kitchen, and there is no doubt that young ladies, anx¬ 
ious, as they should be, to become accomplished housewives, would be 
much more inclined to oversee the affairs of the kitchen, if, while there, 
they could have a sweet and wholesome atmosphere to breathe. 

The Ventilator will remove the foul air from every part of your 
domicil, so that the odors and noxious gases from drains, water closets, 
kitchens, damp or wet cellars or basements, and other foul places, will 
be effectually carried away, along with the unwholesome effluvia from 
your bodies, and the carbonic acid gas thrown out from your lungs and 
generated by your gas burners, or petroleum lamps. Thus, you may 
sleep sweetly all night, in a pure, healthful air, which will greatly pro¬ 
mote the health of your family, and especially that of your children, 
who are extremely sensitive to the influences of foul air. B-ich furni¬ 
ture, gilded picture frames, and fresco paintings upon walls and ceil¬ 
ings, are frequently injured by foul, damp air, but may be effectually 
preserved by our mode of ventilation. This alone would more than 
pay for the cost of ventilation. It may be remembered that in 1863, 
we were visited by a peculiar atmosphere, which, through its damp¬ 
ness, or otherwise, had the effect to mould the paper upon the walls of 
our houses, and cause it to peel off; to mar the varnish of the furni¬ 
ture, to mould the carpets, and cause them to rot speedily ; to mould 
even the pictures ; and in some instances the canvass of the pictures 
was completely rotted, causing the entire loss of a large number of in¬ 
valuable pictures. Many houses in New York city and Brooklyn had 
to be completely refitted in consequence of the injury sustained through 
the destructive influence of the atmosphere in question ; and all of 
this loss and evil might have been counteracted by efficient ventilation, 


which would have prevented the stagnature of the damp or unwhole¬ 
some air within your apartments. 

The Ventilator removes impure air from horse stables , the ammonia- 
cal vapors of which tarnish or destroy the varnish upon carriages, and 
cause horses to sicken and die. In this respect, therefore, Ventilation 
would be a wise economy. 

The Ventilator will prevent the rusting of goods made of steel, or 
iron, stored in basements, or other damp places. Thousands of dollars 
might be saved annually to the merchant, dealing in goods of this de¬ 
scription, by efficient ventilation. 

The Ventilator will furnish to your refrigerators and provision 
closets a pure, sweet, dry air, so that your food will not be tainted by 
the noxious gases which would otherwise be constantly accumulating, 
and you will be enabled to keep fresh meat, perishable fruits, and other 
articles of food for several weeks during the hot weather of summer. 

The excessive heat which is frequently present in churches, legislative 
halls, and other public places, is often quite as annoying as the foul air, 
and may be completely removed by my Ventilator. We have this ex¬ 
cess of heat in churches in summer, when they are lighted with gas. 
Indeed, it would seem to be less difficult to heat a large hall than it is 
to get rid of the excess of heat after it is generated. A committee was 
appointed within the year by the two houses of Congress in reference 
to the ventilation of the House of Representatives and the Senate 
Chamber, and Mr. Meigs, who was called before the committee, said 
that there was no difficulty in warming those two chambers, but when 
the heat was found to be in excess, it was not easy to get rid of it and 
at the same time maintain a pleasant and agreeable temperature. 

Question eok Physicians. —Within the flue of the Ventilator, 
two feet or more above the lantern in which the jet of gas is un¬ 
dergoing combustion, we have a temperature varying from 212 to 
300 degrees, according to the amount of gas consumed. With 
one foot of gas per hour, we have a temperature of 212 degrees, 
and with three feet of gas the temperature will be about 300 de¬ 
grees. The noxious gases of an apartment undergoing ventilation, 
including the malarious poisons , if they should be present, all pass 
up this flue, and are exposed to the heat within the flue ; and the ques¬ 
tion arises whether any advantage of a sanitary character could be 
gained by the decomposition of these poisons through the agency of the 


heat. There would seem to be not merely one but a number of the ma¬ 
larious poisons, and if I am not misinformed, they are decomposed and 
destroyed at a temperature varying from 190 to 210 degrees. If this 
be true, it would be easy to effect their decomposition within the Ven¬ 
tilator. When the foul air, whatever may be its composition, passes 
upward from the Ventilator into the atmosphere, it may be entirely in¬ 
capable of doing further injury; but still, this is a question which 
physicians can decide more easily than myself, and it would afford me 
great pleasure to hear any suggestions from them upon this subject, 
especially in reference to the epidemic influences now threatening the 
country. If the cholera, as some physicians have represented, is capa¬ 
ble of being propagated through fecal discharges, and those discharges 
contain some specific malarious poison, it will be found of course in 
water closets, and in the ventilation of these closets, this terrible chol¬ 
eric poison may be destroyed by the heat of the Ventilator and ren¬ 
dered forever harmless. The only question to be determined, there¬ 
fore, is, whether the noxious gases and malarious poisons, alter they 
have passed from the Ventilator into the air, are likely to return and 
give us any further trouble. If yes, then the decomposition of tlfe ma¬ 
larious poisons by the heat of the Ventilator would be a desideratum. 

Oun Patents.— These are three in number, one of them being for 
show window ventilation, dated May 26, 1863; another for ventilating 
and lighting large refrigerators, provision closets, bank vaults, and 
similar places, dated April 25, 1865 ; and the third for all the general 
purposes of ventilation, dated May 9, 1865, having a wood-cut illus¬ 
tration opposite to the title page. 



Albemarle Hotel, Cor. of 5th Ave. and 24th Street. 

You ask me to say what I think about the Atmospheric Refrigerator. I have 
used both the Meat House and Chest for the last ten months, it works beauti¬ 
fully, and to my entire satisfaction. In fact, it comes fully up to your recommen¬ 
dation. I believe it is the only right principle for a Refrigerator. 

GEORGE D. IVES, Proprietor. 

Brevoort House, Jan. 19, 1864. 

Dear Sir: I have had in use your system of ventilating Meat Chests and Ice 
Houses for eight or ten months, and am so much pleased with its operation that I 
take every opportunity to show and recommend it to my friends, as being the best 
thing I know of to preserve meats, with the least quantity of ice. 

ALBERT CLARK, Proprietor. 

St. Nicholas Hotel, N. Y., Jan. 21st, 1864. 
Dear Sir: We are well satisfied with our experience that your mode of ventilat¬ 
ing Meat Houses is a decided improvement, and will commend itself for its good 
preserving qualities and saving of ice, to all who test it properly. 

Yours truly, SPOTTS & HAWK. 

Fifth Ave. Hotel, New York, Feb. 2d, 1865. 

Mr. II. A. Gouge : Dear Sir—We take pleasure in assuring you that after a long 
and thorough trial of your Ventilating Apparatus, we are convinced that it is the. 
very best of the kind extant. Very truly yours, HITCHCOCK, DARLING & CO. 

St. James Hotel, New York, Jan. 19, 1864. 

Dear Sir : Having thoroughly tested your patent “ Ice House,” constructed for 
this hotel, we cheerfully add our testimony to the many testimonials in its praise, 
as being,-in our opinion, the most perfect and economical of those now in use. It 
not only preserves the meats, &c.. for an indefinite time, but it consumes very 
little ice. Wishing you every success, we remain, 

Very respectfully, yours, T. F. WELLS & CO., Proprietors. 

Dear Sir: We take great pleasure in certifying that we have had in use for nearly 
a year one of your Ice Houses, erected by you, and which has given us entire 
satisfaction. We find it to keep Meats, Fish, &c., with the use of a small quantity 
of ice ; and think it the most economical thing of the kind that can be used in a 
hotel. Yours, very truly, J. CURTIS & CO. 

Brandreth House, New York, Jan. 20, 1864. 

Merchants’ Hotel, 41 Cortlandt street, N. Y., May 8th, 1865. 
Dear Sir: We have had in use the large Meat House you constructed for this 
Hotel now about one year; it has given us entire satisfaction. The ventilation seems 
to be perfect. Yours, &c., CLARKE & SCHENCK, Merchants’ Hotel. 

Western Hotel, 9 Cortlandt street, N. Y., May 6th, 1865. 

Dear Sir: The Atmospheric Meat House which you constructed for this Hotel, 
has now been in use for about one year, and has given entire satisfaction. I 
know of no other system of Ventilating which is effectual; your plan appears as 
perfect as it is simple. D- D- WINCHESTER, Western Hotel. 


Belmont Hotel, 133 to 137 Fulton St., N. Y., May 9, 1865. 

Mr. H. A. Gouge : Dear Sir—The Ventilating Apparatus put up you in my 
dining-room about four months ago, is a complete success. I am very much 
pleased with its operation. The room has been greatly improved by it. The 
principle is undoubtedly correct. Yours respectfully, J. P. RICHARDS. 


This certifies that I have used your Atmospheric Refrigerator during the last 
nine months, and I can truly say that it surpasses all methods that have been in 
use for preserving in an edible condition whatever may be placed within it. In 
fact, I believe it comes fully up to the claims of the inventor. 

SAM’L S. GUY, M. D., 181 Fort Greene Place. 

The Refrigerator you sent me last season has proved to be all you claim for it. 
I think it surpasses your modest recommendations as the correct method for pre¬ 
serving Meats and Fish (raw and cooked,) Fruit and Vegetables ; and I have no 
doubt but you will find that this will soon supersede all other Refrigerators in use. 

WILLIAM II. SMITH, 42 West Jersey Street, Elizabeth, N. J. 

I take pleasure in recommending your improved principle for Refrigerators, as 
the most scientific and perfect yet offered to the public. The one which you intro¬ 
duced into my house about a year ago, has never failed to accomplish all that you 
promised for it. Yours, JOHN D. ASCOUGH, 171 West 11th Street. 

We have used the Atmospheric Refrigerator in our family for the last year. I 
believe it to be the best Refrigerator in the world, and I can’t conceive how it can 
be more perfect. We place all articles of food in it with Sweet Butter, &c., and 
we have none of the experience that I have had with other Refrigerators. You 
have conceived a plan that will surpass all others, without doubt. 

Yours, JOSEPH SCOTT, Silver Plater, 

No. 70 John St,, New York, and 24 Butler St., Brooklyn. 


Mr. H. A. Gouge : The Ventilating Apparatus you put up for me works to my 
entire satisfaction. I think I have given it as severe a test as it can possibly be 
put to. My cooling rooms (25 x 50) which were in my cellar and sub-cellar, were 
in a very bad condition—foul and damp—so much so it was very unhealthy for 
men, water constantly dropping from the ceiling. Since I have had your Appara¬ 
tus there are no signs of dampness ; the atmosphere is perfectly dry and pure ; 
have not had a man complain of sickness. My pork cures as well in summer as 
in a winter atmosphere of 38 or 39 degrees. Your invention has been very valu¬ 
able to me, and I cheerfully recommend it to Pork Packers, Butchers, &c., as the 
best thing I am acquainted with for the purpose. 

HENRY SILVERHORN, Pork Packer , 92 Christie St., N. Y. 

New York, 152 West Street, Jan. 31st, 1864. 

Mr. H. A. Gouge : Dear Sir—Some few months ago we were at a loss to know 
what kind of an Ice House to put in our Packing House, which we were then 
fitting up, when you came to us and proposed to put up your Ventilating Chill 
Rooms, and not charge us a cent if they did not work well. We are happy to say 
that they did all you claimed for them, to our perfect satisfaction. A cold, dry, 
pure air, such as cannot be got in any other ice house. Yours truly, 

D. & W. H. MILLEMANN, 152 West Street. 

Brooklyn, Jan. 29, 1864. 

Dear Sir: About one year ago, as an experiment, we had your Ventilating Ap¬ 
paratus applied to one of our Cooling Rooms, at our Packing House in Raymond 
Street. We are now satisfied with its utility enough to have it applied to all of 
our rooms. We believe it makes a perfect ventilation. 

Very'respectfully, JOSEPH LOCIvITT & CO. 



New York, Jan. 27, 1864. 

Dear Sir : I have had in use the Atmospheric Meat House you built for me, now 
about one year, through an unusual hot summer, and ice of the poorest quality. 
I can say that it has given me entire satisfaction, and, as I tell my friends, 1 never 
paid for a ay thing that gave me so much real pleasure. I cheerfully recommend 
it to butchers and families as the best Refrigerator that I am acquainted with. 

Yours, &c., DAN’L F. FERNALD, 

Union Market, Tillary, cor. Fulton Sts., Brooklyn. 

The Meat House you built for me last June suits me in every particular. The 
ventilation is so perfect, the air within is always perfectly pure and dry, free from 
sweat or moisture of any kind. I can hang meat up in this house with the animal 
heat in it, and it will cure as perfectly as a winter atmosphere of 38 to 40 degrees. 
With my experience, I conceive it to be the most useful invention of the age for 
the purpose. I cheerfully recommend it to the trade generally. 

Wishing you every success, yours respectfully, 

CHARLES W. CONWAY, Butcher, 275 3d Avenue. 

This is to certify that I have used in my business the Atmospheric Meat House 
for the last nine months, and will say that it works to my entire satisfaction, both 
summer and winter. I have experimented with it, particularly as to its quality of 
preserving Fruit, and am satisfied for this purpose it can’t be beat. I belieye this 
Meat House is the best thing ever used for the purpose. 

D. TILTON, Dealer in Poultry and Game , 

No. 12 Franklin Market, & 74 & 76 Tompkins Market. 

„ 444 6th Avenue, Jan. 23, 1864. 

Dear Sir: I have great pleasure in bearing testimony to the very superior sys¬ 
tem adopted by you of ventilating Meat Chests and Ice Houses. I have now tried 
your plan some time, and it gives me great satisfaction in saying that it is far 
superior to any others, and I shall consider it to be my duty to recommend its 
adoption to my friends. I am, dear sir, vours respectfully, 


May 6th, 1865. 

Mr. H. A. Gouge : Dear Sir—The Ventilating Apparatus put up by you in my 
Shop about one year ago is a complete success ; I have kept Meats in it during 
the summer months for four weeks without taint or change of color, and did not 
lose a pound of meat during the entire season. I would not do without it for ten 
times its cost. B. JOACHIM, 48 Greenwich St., N. Y. 

Nos. 29 and 30 Fulton Market, N. Y., May 10, 1865. 

Mr. H. A. Gouge : Dear Sir—Please make for me another of your Ventilating 
Meat Houses, 6 by 10, 8 ft. high, in sections, so that it can be shipped in the hold 
of a vessel. I 'want it as soon as possible. Those which you made for me last 
season, and which were shipped to the West Indies, have given complete satisfac¬ 


Washington, December 20, 1865. 

Mr. Gat : There has been in operation in the Post Office in this city one of 
Gouge’s ventilators for the past two months. It was put in for the purpose of 
ventilating the basement in which are stored the mail bags and pouches, from 
which a supply for other offices is drawn. 

Before the Ventilator was put up the air in the room was damp and impure, 
so much so as to be verv disagreeable and unhealthy to persons remaining in it 
any length of time ; and the leather pouches would be covered with mould and 
the sacks and bags with mildew The Ventilator has removed both the bad air 


and the dampness, and a person can discover no difference in the air from that 
in the rooms above. The pouches and bags are now perfectly dry, and we think 
the Ventilator has already saved to the Department double its cost in preventing 
injury to them. 

It was put up as an experiment, to be paid for if it succeeded. We would 
not have it removed for any consideration whatever I think it will be very 
generally adopted in this city. Truly yours, &c., 

S. J. BOWEN, Postmaster. 

Office of the Tribune , New York, February 9th, 1865. 

Mr. H. A. Gouge : Dear Sir—I cheerfully testify to the efficiency of the Venti¬ 
lators put up by you in our Editorial Rooms. The principle is unquestionably 
correct. In the disconnected outer room, where ventilation was most needed, the 
success is perfect. Your ob’t servant, S. H. GAY. 

New York, Feb. 7th, 1865. 

Mr. H. A. Gouge: Dear Sir—I have your Ventilating Apparatus in use at my 
house and stable. Its operation is perfectly satisfactory, and I am so much pleased 
with it that I cheerfully recommend it to the public. Yours, &c., 

PARAN STEVENS, 238 5th Avenue. 

Mr. II. A. Gouge : It gives me great pleasure to furnish you with my opinion as 
to the merits of your “ Ice Closet,” based upon six months’ experience of the one 
in use at the “ Ladies’ Kitchen,” McDougall Hospital. It is certainly a most ad¬ 
mirable invention, enabling us to keep in perfect preservation, during the unusual 
heat of the past summer, Milk, Poultry, Meats, Fruits, Vegetables, &c., with, as I 
have frequently heard the Steward remark, a very economical consumption of ice. 


New York, Feb. 4, 1864. 

Dear Sir: The large cooling room you built for this place about a year ago, I 
am glad to say gives me great satisfaction. I believe it does all you promised. 
Your mode of lighting and ventilating these rooms is perfect. 

Yours, &c., J. H. CROOK, 39 and 40 Park Row. 

I have had some experience with Refrigerators, and I have had entire control 
of the Meat House and Box you put up in this hotel last July, and I must say that 
it is the only Refrigerator that I ever saw that will keep Fish and Meat (cooked 
and raw) together, without one tasting of the other. I believe it to be the best 
Refrigerator in use. FRANCOIS LESOURD, Chief Cook , Albemarle Hotel , 

Cor. 5th Ave. and 24th St., N. Y. 

Chamberlain's Office, Broadway Bank , New York, March 23d, 1866. 

G. Gay, Esq.:—Dear Sir—I have now had '• Gouge’s Ventilator,” which you 
recommended to me, in use in my stable for several months, and it gives me 
great pleasure to state, that in my judgment, it is decidedly the most perfect 
ventilator yet invented. Very resp’y yours, 





H. .A.. GOUGrB, 



Holds himself in readiness to make applications of the same for any of the pur¬ 
poses of Ventilation, whenever called upon by his patrons. His Apparatus is 

adapted to 

Parlors; Dining and Sleeping Rooms; Kitchens and Basements ; Cel¬ 
lars, Vaults and Water Closets; tenement Houses; School, Lecture 
and Court Rooms; Churches; Legislative Halls; Poor Houses, Pris¬ 
ons and Hospitals; Factories and Dye Houses; Breweries and Distil¬ 
leries ; Powder Magazines; Stores and Show Windows; Banking 
Houses; Hotels and Restaurants; Fruit and Provision Closets ; Pork 
Packing Houses; Meat Houses for Hotels, Butchers, &c. ; Stables; 
Ships and Steamboats ; &c., &c. 

Descriptive Octavo Pamphlets, of 48 pages , with a Wood Cut Illus¬ 
tration , mag he obtained free at the Offices or will he sent free hg mail, on 
application. •